Mbeere Survey in mango farms was done in Kamurugu area (00° 44 S; 37° 39’E) at elevation of 1120 m, Gitaru Dam (00 ° 46’ S ; 37 ° 43’ E ) at elevation of 956 m and Karurumo – Ishiara (00 ° 28 ’ S; 37 ° 41’E ) at elevation of 1223 m . Mango farming in the area is typically commercial with farms ranging from one to 35 hectares. The widely grown varieties are Apple, Kent, Ngowe, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke and Haden. In Karurumo some farmers have grown a few trees of Keitt and Gesine. Complete inventories of the most widely grown varieties are given in Table 1 as was summarized by ABD (2011). The most common challenges facing farmers were limited varieties, diseases and pests. The most widespread diseases were powdery mildew and black spot. Apple mangoes also require spraying against rust. The pests of most economic importance were fruit fly, mango we evil and mango gall flies. The galls swell, deform and perforate the leaves before they fall – off thus reducing photosynthetic potential of the plant. The diseases and pests increase farmers’ in – put costs as they require frequent spray which at times complicates their marketing potential due to chemical residue level settings for external market. There are two channels for mango marketing, namely local and export market. The local market attracts local vendors who transport fruits to accessible urban center s. This market has not set high sanitary standards and most farmers can access it. However, this market is highly affected by glut. Most mango varieties ripen within a short span of time. Long distance movement of mango away from the local market is also costly in terms of transport and loses due to fruit spoilage on transit. The fruits for external market are inspected for certain qualities which require more intensive management. One of the major challenges noted in dry parts of Mbeere (Kamurugu) is the loss of trees through severe droughts. Some trees in the production age (8 – 10 years) were noted to dry up following long dry spell.

Kilifi In Kilifi County Mango forms part of the landscape and they have been in existence for many decades. The economy of the county is based on mangoes, cashew nut and co c oa nut. Most farmers here grow the three trees as a basis for subsistence of which the highest income return comes from cocoa nut, cashew nut and mangoes due to their flowering and fruiting pattern (Figure 40) . Cocoa nuts flowers every three months whilst cashew and mangoes flower twice in a year. Flowering of both mangoes and cashew nuts are sometimes severely affected by diseases but only a few farmers invest on IPM. Also, during the harvesting season mango fruits are affected by pests and blemishes when falling and on transportation such that only 50% of the produce reaches the market in good condition. Only a few farmers grow mangoes on commercial scale of 50 to over 2000 trees. Even within those farms trees are hardly weeded, pruned and sprayed with fungicides and pesticides. Most mango trees planted in Kilifi are from seedlings rather than grafted, which gives intra – varietals and intra – specific diversity. The varieties of mangoes grown in Kilifi are many. They include Ngowe, Apple, Boribo, Kitovu, Batawi, Kent, Mpunda, Dodo, Dodo maji, Kimuzi (Chimuzi), Khovu, Saf ula, Mcharabu, Mteri and many unnamed local varieties. Of these varieties Ngowe and apple are the most marketable. Ngowe ripens early thus it captures the early market while Apple is known for its sweetness. Kitovu is another variety with a wider acceptability since it is the one eaten unripe with salt and pepper giving it good aroma and taste. The cost of farming Ngowe, Apple and Batawi are the highest since the first is highly susceptible to powdery mildew; Batawi and Apple are highly susceptible to mango weevil and fruit fly, in addition to rust that affects Apple depending on weather conditions. Batawi has a good taste but it is hardly harvested in good condition due to hig h susceptibility to maggots of the fruit fly. Kilifi and Coast in general will be the most suitable centre of diversity for mango selection and impro vement given the wide diversity observed on farms (Fig. 41) . Fig. 40: Typical mango production system in Kilifi Fig. 41: A variety of mango with extra large glossy fruits

Makueni County In Makueni survey was conducted in Kilome area (01 58 S; 37 20 ’ E) at 1387 m, Makuyuni (01 45 S; 37 27’ E) at 1388 m , Kawala (01 56 S; 37 34’E) at 1212 m and Masongareli (02 19S; 38 08’E) at 780 m. The widely grown varieties of mango are Apple and Ngowe. In Kilome , in addition to those two varieties, farmers have Haden, Kent, Sabine, Tommy Atkins , Van Dyke and Zill. However, there is higher market demand for apple followed by Ngowe. A summary of the varieties and their totals are given Table 1 as was summarized by ADB (2011). The two varieties are mainly purchased by large scale brokers that prepare them for exp ort. Commercial farming of mango in Makueni also involves the use of fungicide s and pesticide against powdery mildew, anthracnose, fruit fly mango weevil, mealy bugs, mango gall fly, respectively.